The Origin of Coffee; 1

The Origin of Coffee; 1

The original home of the coffee plant is Abyssinia, now Ethiopia. Kaffa, the province in the south-western highlands where they first blossomed gave its name to coffee. Although the formal cultivation and use of coffee as a beverage began early in the 9th century, coffee trees grew wild in the forests of Kaffa prior to that. Thus, many people in that region were familiar with the berries and the drink.

According to Ethiopia’s ancient history, an Abyssinian goat-herd, Kaldi, who lived around AD 850 discovered coffee. He observed his goats dancing excitedly and bleating loudly after chewing the bright red berries that grew on some nearby green bushes.

 

Kaldi tried a few berries himself, and soon felt a sense of elation. He filled his pockets with the berries and ran home to announce his discovery. At his wife’s suggestion, he took the berries to the Monks in the monastery near Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile River.

Kaldi presented the chief Monk (Abbot) with the berries and related his account of their miraculous effect. “Devil’s work!” exclaimed the monk, and hurled the berries in the fire. Within minutes the monastery filled with the aroma of roasting beans, and the other monks gathered to investigate. The beans were raked from the fire and crushed to extinguish the embers. The chief Monk ordered the grains to be placed in the ewer and covered with hot water to preserve their goodness. That night the monks sat up drinking the rich fragrant brew, and vowed that they would drink it daily to keep them awake during their long, night devotions.

While this popular account provides a religious approval for the drinking of roasted coffee berries, it is believed that Ethiopian monks were already chewing the berries as a stimulant for centuries before it was brewed. Ethiopian records establish that Ethiopian and Sudanese traders who traveled to Yemen over 600 years ago chewed the berries en route to their destination to survive the harsh difficult journey. Residents of Kaffa, as well as other ethnic groups such as the Oromo were also familiar with coffee. They mixed ground coffee with butter, and consumed them for sustenance. This practice of mixing ground coffee beans with ghee (clarified butter) to give it a distinctive, buttery flavor persists to this day in parts of Kaffa and Sidamo, two of the principle coffee producing regions of Ethiopia.

Brewed coffee, the dry, roasted, ground, non-alcoholic beverage is described as Bunna (in Amharic), Bun (in Tigrigna), Buna (in Oromiya), Bono (in Kefficho), and Kaffa (in Guragigna). Arabic scientific documents dating from around 900 AD refer to a beverage drunk in Ethiopia, known as ‘buna.” This is one of the earliest references to Ethiopian, coffee in its brewed form. It is recorded that in 1454 the Mufti of Aden visited Ethiopia, and saw his own countrymen drinking coffee there. He was suitably impressed with the drink which cured him of some affliction. His approval made it popular among the dervishes of the Yemen who used it in religious ceremonies, and subsequently introduced it to Mecca.

The transformation of coffee as a trendy social drink occurred in Mecca through the establishment of the first coffee houses which were known as Kaveh Kanes.  These coffee houses were originally religious meeting places, but soon became social meeting places for gossip, singing and story-telling. With the spread of coffee as a popular beverage it soon became a subject for heated debate among devout Muslims.

(Adapted from Selamta, The In-Flight Magazine of Ethiopian Airlines ;edited by Professor Nkiru Nzegwu)

 

 

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